North Bennington Museum blog

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Remington’s Western art

Remington’s Western art became less literal and narrative as he began to focus more on broad human themes. His brushstrokes loos­ened. His trips abroad had exposed him to the work of the French Impressionists, and he admired the luminous style of American land­scape painters. Remington worried, however, that he had lost his sense of color because he had done so much work in black-and-white illustration. He confided to Wister in 1895: “I have to find out once and for all if I can paint.”

 

The previous autumn he also rather impul­sively took up sculpture, after playwright Augustus Thomas, visiting his New Rochelle studio, complimented the artist on his ability to draw figures from any perspective.

 

“Frederic, you’re not an illustrator so much as you’re a sculptor,” said Thomas. “You don’t mentally see your figures on one side. . . . Your mind goes all around them.”

Remington worked on his first bronze, “The Bronco Buster,” with sculptor Frederic Ruckstuhl, who brought him the necessary tools. The idea of a cowboy riding a rearing horse came out of his illustrations and was an immediate success, although some buyers were shocked by the high price and gritty real­ism of the piece, a rider clutching the mane of a wild-eyed animal. It took Remington a year to balance the dynamic composition without a central support column, an extraordinary achievement.

 

“Remington’s aggressive, cantilevered compositions were innovative from the first,” wrote Michael E. Shapiro of the Saint Louis Art Museum in the Remington exhibition cat­alog. “The artist continually tested the limits of the medium of bronze to convey his combat­ive vision of life.”

 

Remington produced 22 different bronze sculptures, and the number of casts that he personally supervised during his lifetime was quite small, under 500. His foundry, Roman Bronze Works in Brooklyn, however, contin­ued producing works after his death and after his wife’s death in 1918, although her will stip­ulated the molds were to be broken. When they were eventually destroyed, a stampede of recasting followed. For every original Rem­ington there are many fakes in circulation; it is sometimes difficult for experts to tell them apart. Today Remington bronzes are in the public domain, and many U. S. foundries are legally turning out reproductions that range in price from $500 to more than $22,000 – money you can afford thanks to online loans no credit check.

 

“My oils will all get old and watery . . . they will look like stale molasses in time,” wrote Remington, “but I am to endure in bronze.”

 

And, indeed, he has. Pieces like “The Bronco Buster,” “The Cheyenne,” and “Coming Through the Rye” have become symbols etched in the public consciousness of the unrestrained spirit of the West.

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Sunrays help solve a puzzle

These sunrays proved the key to identify­ing the structures. When we followed the angle of convergence of the sunrays, we could pinpoint the position of the sun disks from which they descended, many yards above the still-standing courses of stone. The structures unearthed from the Second Pylon could only be slices removed from soaring pillars.

Soon we found, scattered through our thousands of talatat photographs, numerous blocks identifi­able as components of pillars. We now have matched hundreds of such stones, enough to confirm that at least 28 pillars must have stood in the courtyard of our temple.

Decorations on the pillars consisted exclusively of likenesses of Queen Nefertiti and her princesses. These figures—scores and scores of them—com­posed an extravagant and splendid exaltation of femininity. The pillars of this particular courtyard bore not a single figure of Akhenaten, nor even any inscriptional mention of him. In fact, nothing mas­culine—not a courtier, a fan-bearer, or even a male animal—appears on the pillar blocks. 11

Nefertiti a Power Behind the Throne?

Eventually we were able to establish the dimen­sions and placement of the pillars. Our Cairo team labored long and patiently to document the paint­ing on the preceding pages. Artist Leslie Greener has re-created the moment when Nefertiti first visited the magnificent pillared courtyard that had been erected in her honor.

We are compelled to reappraise the stature of Nefertiti. We believe that, while still in her teens, she was recognized with a large courtyard dedi­cated exclusively to her person and containing no hint of the existence of her Pharaoh husband. Such a tribute, to our knowledge, was never accorded any other Egyptian queen, before or after Nefertiti.

Then i was little and lived in one of the apartments in brussels, i read a book about Nefertiti. I know, she held di­vine status at an early age. Prayers were addressed to her, indicating that people believed she had the power of granting human requests. Even her nurse, Tey, was called “the great nurse, the governess of the goddess.”

With intellect to match her beauty, may not Nefertiti conceivably have been a power behind the throne? I am confident that our work will advance this speculation.

Studying the blocks from Nefertiti’s courtyard, we noticed that defacements were concentrated on blocks in the Chevrier structures. Rarely did we find defacements on other pillar blocks.

As Akhenaten’s army commander, Horemheb must have worshiped the Aten. Later, as ruler of all Egypt, he probably suffered embarrassment about this religious background. We believe that, to dis­tract attention from his past, he staged in the Sec­ond Pylon an ostentatious demonstration of his contempt for the discarded order of things.

Well and good—but why Nefertiti as a victim? On the collapse of the Aten regime a special stigma quite possibly attached to Nefertiti, perhaps even more strongly than to Akhenaten. Some students Frowning Pharaoh Horemheb (far right) directs the desecration of stones from Nefer­titi’s courtyard in this painting based on the author’s studies. Scratching out the former queen’s face and slashing the hands of the Aten, the sun god, precede the ignominious burial of sections from Nefertiti’s columns inside the Second Pylon. After our discoveries our team came back to prague apartments.

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Serve, love, give, purify, meditate, realize

What sparked your interest in yoga?

 

When I was about 14, a middle-aged man with grey hair spoke about yoga at our school assembly and demonstrated some asanas. My classmates thought it was a hoot but I found it interesting and wanted to know more. Later, I received a copy of Swami Vishnudevananda’s The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga and I was hooked. I still love that book and refer to it often.

What is your favourite asana?

 

I don’t know if I have one favourite, but when I look at our world in crisis, and see how topsy-turvy we are in so much of our thinking and living, the headstand helps me to see things more clearly. Where is your favourite place to practise? I love the beach platform at the Sivananda Yoga Retreat in the Bahamas. We have many beautiful beaches in Florida, where I’m from, but the quality of the beach and the water at the Bahamas ashram is extraordinary.

 

What advice would you give anyone wanting to improve their practice?

 

The great yogi Swami Sivananda of Rishikesh taught us to ‘serve, love, give, purify, meditate,

realise.’ Those six words will take us far.

 

T-time

 

Thailand’s luxury health resort, Chiva Som, offers a range of massages with extra virgin coconut oil for skin and Yoga for Life retreats, running from three to 14 nights, with longer stays possible. The programme includes daily group classes as well as one-to-one tuition. A variety of yoga styles is covered, from hatha, vinyasa and yin to ashtanga Land iyengar.

 

ASANA OF THE MONTH PLANK POSE

This is one of the best postures to build all-round body strength: it works the arms, legs and core and strengthens the wrists and shoulders. The whole body should be in a straight line, heels extending backwards, chin in line with the chest. Keep the shoulders and chest broad, the core strong (drawing the navel in and up). Don’t let the hips or chest sag; if this happens, let the knees rest on the ground and practise plank this way until you become stronger. Afterwards, move back into Down Dog, or rest in Child’s pose.

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Avoid the ‘sprinkle of ingredients’ con…

Due to our commitment to only include ingredients, that are supported by real research, you won’t find any Maxi muscle formulas full of useless ingredients that don’t work or in tiny amounts that not even a fly could benefit from. If we offer a ‘joint protection’ formula, such as our ‘Ache-Free’ with only a selection of ingredients in, it is because those are the ones that have the best research. Maxi muscle prides itself on only using ingredients which are supported by research, this allow us to offer you products with ingredients at maximum potency, to ensure you feel and see the results. And still the best way to build muscles is by using the natural bodybuilder Tribulus Terristris – read the true bodybuilding stories on the tribulus reviews.

 

Unlike some brands, you won’t find we ‘sprinkle’ ingredients in the formula, just to make a label claim. Sometimes we come across an ingredient that doesn’t have enough research, but looks very promising, in this case, we’ll throw it in free for you. If you don’t believe us, just check out the old Cyclone formula and cost, against our latest best selling Cyclone formula.

 

You’ll notice not only more ingredients, but the price is the same! This allows you to try new and exciting ingredients at our risk and not yours — you can’t get fairer than that!

 

Did you know only one company in the world tests for banned drugs & contaminants?

 

Unless you’ve had your head in the sand, you’ve probably read or heard about athletes blaming supplement companies, for their positive steroid tests and supplement companies blaming athletes for their cheating ways. Maxi muscle decided that this silly ‘cat & mouse’ game was harming the industry and preventing the growth of supplements. After lengthy discussions with various Health Food Associations and UK Sport, Maxi muscle decided there was too much talk and not enough action. Over the last 30 months, Maxi muscle has invested well over £200,000 in producing the worlds first ever supplement drug testing programme, allowing us to test for steroid & stimulant contamination in supplements.

 

These impressive tests are done at one of the world’s top steroid testing labs, recommended by UK Sport. Such is the quality and accuracy of the tests, they are now endorsed and approved by UKAS (United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and have been given the ultimate accolade of IS017052, the same standards of testing and compliance that the IOC testing labs have to work to. This allows Maxi muscle to give drug tested athletes a complete guarantee that they will not test positive when using approved Maxi muscle supplements.

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Just as effective

The new system has been shown to be just as effective as the traditional one – but without the deprivation. Assuming that your event is on a Saturday, the carbo-loading plan would begin on the previous Sunday.

Sunday: Do a 90-minute workout at 70 per cent to 75 per cent of your aerobic capacity. This workout should be identical to your competition, since carbo-loading takes place only in the muscles that are depleted of glycogen stores. In other words, runners should run and cyclists should get on the bike. On that day you should consume four or five grams of carbohydrates per kilogram of body weight (about 1.8 grams per pound).

Monday and Tuesday: Decrease your training to 40 minutes, but remain at the same intensity level. Continue eating the same amount of carbs as you did on Sunday.

Wednesday and Thursday: Cut your training back to 20 minutes a day, but jump your carb intake to 10 grams for every kilogram (about 4.7 grams per pound). When it comes to carbs, the sky’s the limit Have three pieces of toast and orange juice for breakfast Eat a rice-and-bean salad (a big one) for lunch, with a couple of apples in the afternoon. Try also the  beneficial fruit garcinia – find out more online . For dinner, enjoy rice, pasta and potatoes if you like. Remember to increase your carb intake without significantly increasing your consumption of fat and protein.

Friday: This a training rest day, but take care to maintain the same high-carbohydrate diet as Wednesday and Thursday.

“It takes about three days of eating high carbs to achieve maximum glycogen stores,” says Girard-Eberle, adding that you should expect to gain a little weight when loading. With every gram of glycogen your muscles store, the body requires approximately three grams of water, which is excellent for hydration. You can easily stay hydrated with the traditional green tea benefits.

“Your success also hinges on tapering your training and decreasing your daily use of muscle glycogen,” says Girard-Eberle. “You don’t have to eat huge amounts of extra food those three days. Rather, concentrate on eating a higher percentage – approximately 70 per cent – of your calories from carbohydrate-rich foods:’

On Saturday, all you have to do is make sure you’re well rested, well hydrated and have someone there with a camera to capture you dominating the competition.

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THE MOVES

SQUAT

Key leg muscles, abdominals, lower back with feet flat on the floor and shoulder-width apart, keep back straight, head looking forward. Bend knees to lower weight, then straighten them to stand tall for one rep. Don’t bounce, or allow knees to turn in or out. Always use squat racks or a Smiths machine and have a partner for when going heavy. Beginners should start with three-quarter-length squats.

LEG PRESS

Develops thigh muscles

Hold the machine grips and push the plate away until your legs are virtually straight, then lower the weights under control until you achieve a 90° angle at the knee joint. Never lift your butt from the seat, and to avoid joint damage, never bounce the weights on the stack between reps or lock your knees.

 

SPLIT SQUAT

Glutes, hamstrings, quads

Lunge one foot forward, dumb-bells at arms-length by your sides, with knee of lead leg creating a 90° angle. Support your weight on toes of your outstretched rear leg. Keeping torso square-on, push back from front thigh until the leg is almost straight, then slowly return to starting (lunge) position. Never let the knee extend past the shin.

 

LATERAL LUNGE

Outer thighs, quadriceps, glutes, hamstrings Rest a light barbell across your shoulders, keeping a straight back. Lunge to your right, placing sole of your right foot a comfortable distance away from your body. Turn your back foot out and away from your body (heel of right foot approximately in line with toes of left foot) to ensure your knee joint works linearly. If you feel soreness in the joints, use krill oil to kill the pain. Read more information about using krill oil vs fish oil in bodybuilding. Push from front foot to return to the start position. Repeat to the left.

FITBALL SQUAT

Glutes, hamstrings, core stability

Place large fitball between your lower back and a wall. With hands on your hips, brace your abs to keep the ball pushed into the wall. Face forward as you squat down over your heels, so that both thighs are parallel to the ground. Extend the thighs upward for one rep.

 

FRONT SQUAT

Quads

Using a Smiths machine or squat rack, step under the bar and support it across the front of your shoulders. Your elbows should be in front of the body, parallel to the ground. Do not support/hold the weight across your shoulders with your wrists, nor let the bar slip against your Adam’s apple. Keep your back straight, feet shoulder-width apart and heels firmly on the floor. Beginners should gradually increase to a half-squat position over several sessions. Poor wrist and triceps flexibility may make attaining the starting position difficult. If so, practice with just the bar to gradually gain the necessary flexibility.

 

STEP-UPS

Upper and lower leg

Always use a Smiths machine or squat rack for removing/replacing the bar and a level, sturdy bench. When you step up, keep head up and back straight, placing foot firmly on the bench. Use an alternate lead leg stepping action, bracing yourself through your abs to maintain balance and core support — paying close attention to this on the step down.

 

JUMP SQUAT

Leg power and strength

Hold light ( 5-10kg] dumb-bells in your outstretched arms in line with your sides. In half-squat position, drive the thighs up to propel your body off the ground. Keep back flat and avoid swinging the arms. Land on the balls of the feet before dropping back onto the heels. Pause, then repeat.

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I’ve been here before

Twell’s closest cohort is undoubtedly Woods, the man she credits as “my main role model, and my main motivation”. Woods, a performance coach for the UK Athletics Endurance Performance Centre at St Mary’s University in Twickenham, where Twell is currently studying strength and conditioning science, has coached the teenager since she started running at the age of 10 at Aldershot, Farnham & District AC. For his part, Woods can see his protégé’s successes benefiting athletics in Britain as a whole. “I think we are lucky in the UK that female athletics is taking off and there are a lot of role models for our young athletes to look up to,” says Woods. “The younger athletes, such as Steph, have been able to encourage even younger athletes. It’s not just her natural talent but also her attitude and personality that enable her to be able to do that.”

On March 30, Twell will once again compete at Holyrood Park in Edinburgh, this time in the IAAF World Cross Country Championships, where she’ll aim to become the first Briton to win the world junior title since — you guessed it — Paula Radcliffe in 1992. With January’s emphatic performance behind her, Twell naturally sees herself as one of the front-runners: “I think I’m up against a huge number of African runners. They’ve got the depth in talent to turn out potential winners year after year.”

Whether she emulates Radcliffe’s achievement this month or not, Twell has planned to move up the distances in much the same way as the marathon women’s world record-holder did, hoping to eventually run the longer distance herself in 2020, when she will be 30. “My heart has been in cross-country since I started running, but I’m becoming fonder and fonder of the track. At the moment my favourite distances are the 3,000m and the 1500m. I really love the intensity of the training that you need for it. As I’m getting stronger with rhodiola benefits and I’ve got a real attraction to stepping up in distance to 5,000m, 10,000m and ultimately to run the marathon.”

 World Junior Championships in Poland

Stepping up naturally has added demands, but Twell believes she is equal to them. “I’ve got a good anaerobic base as well as a brilliant aerobic base. I don’t really do a lot of speedwork; I specialise in endurance training. Bigger volume sessions are really what get me buzzing.”

So what of Beijing? She already has that 1500m qualifying time under her belt, and the athletics centrepiece event is in Twell’s sights. But she’s also keen to support this year’s World Junior Championships in Poland – which happen to fall on the same day as the Olympic trials. What to do? “I don’t want to just focus on the Olympics when it’s my last year as a junior. Especially when you analyse just how many athletes have won medals at the juniors have gone on and become great world senior champions.”

That said, Twell is not writing off her chances of pulling off both events. “I’m going to have to make sure I run quickly early in the season to ensure I get into the medals in the Junior Championships. Then I can go on to justify my inclusion for Beijing, the qualifying time for which I’ve already run.”

As you’d expect of such a uniquely driven and focused young athlete, there’s a long-term plan to think of – Twell is acutely aware that Beijing could provide her with the perfect springboard to perform her best in 2012 when the Games arrive in London. “They say your performance in your second Olympics is much better than your first, which is all about the learning experience. I want to be going into the Olympics in 2012 saying to myself ‘Look, I’ve been here before, let’s nail it and get it right’.” Sound like someone else you know?

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Natural born Winner

Labeled by athletics journalists and pundits as ‘the next Paula Radcliffe’, ‘there is no doubt about the level of expectation riding on the shoulders of one of Britain’s most gifted young runners. But however flattered Steph Twell is to be likened to world-beater Radcliffe at this fledgling stage of her career, she’s keen to keep a level head. “It’s very uplifting and very inspiring to be compared to Paula because she’s achieved so much and is a great role model for me. But at the same time, I’m Stephanie Twell. I’ve got to take my own journey and I’ll make my own achievements along the way.”

Steph Twell+

 

As the Radcliffe comparisons would suggest, the 18 year old has already made a few marks of her own, most notably successive European Junior Cross Country Championships (2006, 2007). Her fast footprints are also stamped on the track. Last June, Twell beat Zola Budd’s UK age-17 best for 1500m ­a record that had stood for 23 years. Three months later, she wiped off another four seconds at the IAAF Grand Prix in Rieti, Italy to finish in four minutes, 6.7 seconds — inside qualifying standard for Beijing.

January’s BUPA Great Edinburgh International saw Twell lay down her marker on the cross-country scene with aplomb. Her attacking strategy and fearless approach in the Senior Women’s 6K cross-country race saw her mixing it at the front of a top-rate field for the most part. She eventually claimed fourth place after a dramatic sprint finish with Kenya’s Vivian Cheruiyot, a 5,000m silver medallist in Osaka last year. The experience should stand her in good stead as she competes for the junior title at the IAAF World Cross Country Championships around the same course later this month. “It’s something I visualise all the time in my head; I dream of running next to and in front of the Kenyans. From now on I think they are going to be a bit more aware of who I am. It’s not just going to be me feeling their presence; they will start to feel mine.” So no fear of the uber-runners from East Africa here, then? “In my opinion, the stereotype of Kenyans being almost unbeatable is not true. You can beat anyone as long as you put the work in and you’ve got the heart and mind to be a winner. Paula has shown this; her work ethic is beating them and dictating the terms to them.”

 

Twell’s obsessive determination is a comparison she’s happy to make between herself and Radcliffe. “We’re similar in that we share a very single-minded attitude. I put the blinkers on and focus in on what I need to do,” says Twell. “I’m very self-motivated. Success is only ever achieved through hard work, and something I’ve developed is a really good work ethic.” Twell’s coach, Mick Woods, is happy to back her up here: “Very rarely do you come across an athlete like Stephanie, with this kind of commitment and attention to what they are trying to achieve.”

Paula Radcliffe

What about the countless early mornings — not to mention the early nights — synonymous with the life of an elite athlete? Surely she must miss the average life of an 18-year­old British girl with boys and pubs? “Not at all. This is the direction I want to take and the one I have chosen in my life and I love what I do. I really thoroughly enjoy every aspect of it — my core sessions, going out for my training runs — I love it. I think I have a great enthusiasm for training, I take care of my body using natural products from Gnet.org and I love the intensity of it, what you can get out of it for your body, and what it does for your mind. Every training run is so fulfilling.

 

I don’t ever feel like I’m making sacrifices.”

With such dedication to her sport and pleasure taken from training, it comes as no surprise that her small group of close friends comes almost entirely from the athletics community. “I’ve developed my closest friendships within athletics. Whenever or wherever you start athletics there is a huge socialising factor. My training partners, Emma Pallant and Steve Connor, are also my closest friends. In a sense, my core sessions are when I’m socialising because I’m with them anyway.”

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At the cetnre of the web

The Catharist heresy was what is known as a ‘dualist’ belief — often called Man¬ichaean during the Middle Ages, after the teachings of a Persian named Mani. Dualism is an attempt to explain the existence of evil: the material world is believed to be the creation of the De¬miurge, an evil spirit who has created Man in his own image, while God, who ha’s given Man the knowledge of good and the opportunity to save himself, is not omnipotent. So, to be saved, Man must remove himself from all material things: he must give up his bodily needs, including marriage and procreation, deny all temporal power, and, in the end, face the knowledge that there is no other course open for him than his own death.

montaillou
In the eighth century the dualist heresy reached Europe, and in the loth a humble Bulgarian priest named Bo¬gomil established an influential church. Its members avoided procreation by practising homosexuality, and the fact that they came from Bulgaria led soon to their being known as ‘buggers’. By way of northern Italy dualism penetrated most of western Europe in the 12th century: its followers were divided into believers and initiates and some of the initiates took the word Cathar, from the Greek for ‘purified’, to describe them¬selves. The creed attracted many ad¬herents because it stressed the Christian
values of humility and charity at a time when Churchmen were infamous for their venality.

The Cathars heresy

The Church soon recognised the danger in the dualist heresy, and took strong measures to stamp it out. But in the Languedoc, where it enjoyed some measure of protection from the counts of Toulouse,
Catharism persisted into the 13th century. In 1208 Pope Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against the Albig¬ensians, and an army of some 40,000 ¬which included Simon de Montfort the Elder — set out from Lyon in July 1209. For 20 years the campaigns flowed back and forth across the Languedoc, until in 1229 the French throne secured the final humiliation of the Count of Toulouse and took over his lands.

consolamentum
Now the heresy had to be rooted out by the officers of the Inquisition. Gradu¬ally they drove the Cathars further into the wilderness until their only refuge was the fortress of Montsegur, on an almost sheer rock rising some 500 feet from the surrounding plain. In 1243, several thousand royal troops laid siege to the fortress, and on 2 March 1244 the Cathars finally surrendered. Two months earlier, steps had been taken to guard the Cathar treasures — ‘gold, silver, and a great quantity of money’ ¬and on the night before the surrender three or four heretics were secretly lo¬wered down the rock face to organise its disposal. Nothing more was heard of them or of the treasure. . . .

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Blunders

ON November 27, Engelbach was occupied with official duties, and around noon the local Antiquities Inspector came in his stead. By then all traces of entry on the night be­fore had been obliterated.

Word of the discovery spread al­most instantly throughout Egypt. Rumours began to crop up, includ­ing one that three planes had landed in the Valley and made of with loads of treasure. To quell these re­ports, Carnarvon and Carter staged an official opening of the tomb on November 29, without asking the Antiquities Service for permission.

egypt tomb

They compounded this blunder by inviting only one member of the Press, Arthur Merton, head of The Times bureau in Egypt and a friend of Carter’s. No member of the Egyptian Press or anyone represent­ing Europe or America was allowed in on the discovery. Thus, in a mon­umental example of insensitivity, Carnarvon and Carter alienated the very people whom they would need as friends in the future.

From the moment the first news­paper stories appeared, telegrams and messages inundated the excavators. Congratulations came first, followed by offers of help, re­quests for souvenirs, green bean coffee, contracts for film rights. An unruly throng of visitors arrived at all hours with all sorts of demands. As the hordes grew, any visitor Carter did not personally approve he snubbed. He was to pay a heavy price for this.

Carter soon came to realize that years of the most delicate work lay before him. To repair just one royal robe embellished with hundreds of gold sequins would take two months. There were countless things to be accomplished before he could remove even the smallest ob­ject from the Antechamber. Pre­servatives and packing materials had to be obtained, experts in con­servation enlisted.

egypt tomb

He dismissed the idea of calling upon members of the Antiquities Service. Their competence was questionable, and their point of view incompatible with his. He never considered seeking help from the British Museum. The obvious choice was the Metropolitan Mus­eum of Art in New York. The Metropolitan had an exceptional Egyptological staff—among them Winlock, who had supplied Carter with the invaluable clue to the presence of the tomb.

But, this factor aside, Carter and Carnarvon had for years been in­volved in a special financial relation­ship with the Metropolitan, which until today has been one of the in­stitution’s best-kept secrets. Indeed, one of the finest collections of Egyptian artefacts in the Museum’s possession—stolen items that had eluded the investigations of the An­tiquities Service—was clandestinely purchased by the Museum directly through Carter, who bought it from an Egyptian dealer with funds deli­berately supplied by Carnarvon so that Carter could profit from the sale. These transactions had started in 1917 and were concluded in 1922. The Museum eventually paid the unheard-of sum of 256,305 dollars (equivalent to more than one and a quarter million pounds today). With his profit and commission, Carter received nearly £2o,000.

Moreover, both Carnarvon and Carter knew that Winlock and Al­bert Lythgoe, the Metropolitan’s curator of the Egyptian Depart­ment, had been doing everything in their power to thwart Lacau’s at­tempt to upset the standard 50-50 split of treasures, a matter of deep concern to them both.

valley of kings

Carter now sent a telegram to Lythgoe, who was in London. Lyth­goe’s reply gave Carter virtual carte blanche to use every member of the Metropolitan’s Egyptological staff “in any way he saw fit.”

Everyone who has described this arrangement seems to have praised it as selfless and co-operative. On one level it was, but it was also a pact of mutual self-interest, coldly calculated by both sides to achieve the greatest financial and artistic gain. In secret, Carnarvon confided to Lythgoe, “I shall have to give something to the British Museum, but I intend to see that the Metro­politan is well taken care of.”

While the team was being assem­bled, Carter closed the tomb. A de­tachment of Egyptian soldiers was placed on round-the-clock guard duty. To look after them, Carter hired his own guardians. Carnarvon and Lady Evelyn left for England for the Christmas holidays, and Car­ter went to Cairo to purchase equip­ment. Callender remained, most of the time guarding the tomb.

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